Since at least the time of Pope Leo XIII (1810-1903) Catholic leaders have been concerned about Europe’s secularization, including both the materialism of communism and of capitalism. Several of those leaders embraced the Catholic Action strategy as developed in the 1930s by Msgr. (later Cardinal) Joseph Cardijn in Belgium. The best-known expressions of Catholic Action include the Young Christian Students, the Young Christian Workers and, originating in Chicago, the Christian Family Movement. European leaders also experimented with the worker-priest movement, whereby some clergy took jobs in factories and shops to more directly influence workers.
- Bill Droel
The Working Catholic: Book highlights Chicago's "labor apostles" (Chicago Catholic News)